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Map of EuropeMap of Europe Europe and Asia together form one vast land mass called Eurasia. Europe itself lies west of the Ural Mountains, to the north of the Caucasus and on the western bank of the Bosporus strait. A large portion of Russia, the part where most of its people live, and a small area of Turkey both fall within Europe. In the far north, Europe borders the Arctic Ocean. Frozen tundra merges into the vast coniferous forests of Russia and Scandinavia. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, gives the northwestern countries of Europe a mild, wet climate. Central Europe and Russia have hot summers but cold winters. To the south, beyond the mountain ranges of the Pyrenees and Alps, lie the sunny Mediterranean lands, with their hot summers and mild winters.

A satellite image of EuropeA satellite image of Europe

The waterways and roadways of Berlin, GermanyThe waterways and roadways of Berlin, Germany


Around 740 million people live in Europe—around one-ninth of the world's population. Its population is particularly dense in the lowlands of western Europe, where industrial cities have grown up close to one another and, in some cases, have even merged with one another. Waterways and road and rail networks link Europe's major cities. Only a few large areas of uninhabited land remain in the far north, in Scandinavia. There are more than 80 native European ethnic groups. Some are descended from a number of peoples. The British, for example, have pre-Celts, Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and Normans as ancestors. The largest ethnic groups in Europe are Russians (95 million) and Germans (82 million).

With an area of 2.02 sq km (0.78 sq miles) and a population of 36,371, the city-state of Monaco is the world’s most densely populated country.

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