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Europe

Northern Europe

Satellite mapSatellite mapEurope's northern seas, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, lap the shores of its northernmost countries: the Scandinavian nations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden; the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania; and Finland, with its long eastern border with Russia. The Faroe Islands and Iceland, first settled by seafarers from Scandinavia—the Vikings—more than 1000 years ago, lie out to the northwest, across the Norwegian Sea from Norway. Norway, Sweden and Denmark are together known as Scandinavia. Together with Finland and Iceland, they form the Nordic countries. Very cold temperatures are recorded in the far north tundra regions, but the coast of Norway is warmed by currents from tropical waters, and is quite mild in winter.


The Nordic countries

The forests and lakes of FinlandThe forests and lakes of Finland
A Norwegian fjordA Norwegian fjordHigh mountains run down the spine of the Scandinavian peninsula and broaden to fill nearly all of southern Norway. On the west coast, long, deep arms of the sea called fjords fill mountain valleys carved out by glaciers. To the east, forested slopes run down to the Gulf of Bothnia. In both Sweden and Finland, also covered with dense coniferous forest, tens of thousands of lakes have formed where glaciers have scooped out valleys or hollows in the land and the ice has later melted.

At 287 m (942 ft) deep, the Eiksund Tunnel in Norway is the deepest undersea tunnel in the world. It connects the island of Eika with mainland Norway.

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