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South America


A map of BrazilA map of Brazil Covering nearly half of the continent, Brazil is South America’s largest and most populous country. In the north, the world’s largest rainforest covers the vast basin of the River Amazon. Covering most of eastern, central and southern Brazil are the Brazilian Highlands. Most of the country's cities, including São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, are situated in the southeast highlands or the narrow coastal plain. Brazil was ruled by Portugal for 325 years. Today, Portuguese is the country’s main language, uniting the mixture of European, African and other peoples who live there.

A map of BrazilA map of Brazil

Aerial view of the Amazon rainforestAerial view of the Amazon rainforest

Amazon Basin

Northern Brazil is dominated by the Amazon Basin, still largely covered by dense tropical rainforest, and drained by the great River Amazon and its many tributaries. Known to as Amazonia, this hot, humid region has one of the highest levels of biodiversity on the planet: around a third of all the world’s species live here. 

Brazil has a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile.

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