The Online Library of Knowledge

Modern history

20th century to the present A-Z

Apartheid   A policy that separated white and black people in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. Apartheid ended in 1994, when free elections were held and Nelson Mandela became president. 

Berlin Wall   A wall built by the Communist authorities of East Germany in 1961, to stop people moving from East to West Berlin. The Berlin Wall was torn down in 1989 after uprisings weakened Soviet power in the region. 

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