Age of Mammals


By the time the dinosaurs became extinct, several different groups of mammals had already evolved around the world. The first mammals evolved...

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Industry


The word “industry” describes an activity that produces the goods or services that people need or want. Industries fall into three groups. Primary industries are those...

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Reptiles


Reptiles are cold-blooded animals with scaly skins. They include snakes, lizards, turtles and crocodiles. Most reptiles lay eggs...

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Southeast Asia


Southeast Asia lies south of China, east of India and north of Australia. The region has around 600 million inhabitants, living on the mainland peninsula or across the 24,000...

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Age of Discovery


From the early 1400s, European explorers set sail across the world's oceans, making contact with Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. We call this period, which lasted until the...

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Great scientists


Charles Darwin (1809–1882) was a British scientist whose work on evolution—the way living things change over generations—revolutionized scientific thinking. At the...

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Microscopes


A microscope is an instrument that magnifies very small objects, allowing the viewer to see detail in the object that is invisible to the naked eye. Microscopes are used...

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How dinosaurs lived


Dinosaurs can be divided into plant-eaters or meat-eaters, although some may have been omnivores: they ate both animals and plants. The shape of a dinosaur’s...

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Peoples


Modern humans probably evolved in Africa about 200,000 years ago. About 70,000 years ago, they began to move to other parts of the world. By about 15,000 years ago...

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Amphibians


Amphibians are a small group of cold-blooded, vertebrate animals. They include two main groups: the salamanders and newts, and the frogs and toads. The word “amphibian”...

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Solar System


The star we call the Sun lies at the centre of the Solar System, an array of objects of various sizes that move around, or orbit, it. These are: the eight major planets (in order of...

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Weather and climate


Weather is the conditions and changes that take place in the lower atmosphere, up to about 20 kilometres (about 12 miles) high. It includes temperatures by day and night, wind speed...

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Japan


The people of ancient Japan believed their islands were created by the goddess Izanami and her brother and husband Izanagi. According to legend, Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun...

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Forces


Anything that pushes or pulls an object is called a force. A breath of wind, a car engine, a magnet and an elastic band are all examples of things that can produce a force. A force...

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World


Circumference at the Equator: 40,075 km (24,901 miles), land area:  148,328,100 sq km (57,270,000 sq miles), ocean area:  361,741,000 sq km (139,670,000 sq miles)...

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Earthquakes


An earthquake happens when the tectonic plates which form the Earth’s outer layer suddenly slip past each other, snap or make some other rapid movement, especially along their...

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Ecosystems


Animals, plants and other living things, together known as organisms, must survive together in the natural world. They depend on and relate to each other, such as by being plants...

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Africa


Africa is the second largest continent after Asia. The north of the continent is mostly occupied by the hot, barren Sahara Desert, edged with coastal areas that are...

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Space transport


People dreamed of travelling in outer space long before rockets were invented. In 1865 the French science-fiction writer Jules Verne wrote a story about travellers to the Moon. The...

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Land invertebrates


In every house, garden, field or forest on Earth, there is a world of activity that we seldom notice. On the ground, in the soil, in the air and in the water live many small...

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India


The Indian civilization is one of the oldest in the world. Farmers had begun to build villages in the valleys of the River Indus and the nearby River Ghaggar-Hakra (in modern-day...

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Explorers


The voyages of exploration of the 15th and 16th centuries opened up new lands to conquer for some European powers, such as Spain, Portugal, England, France and the Netherlands. They...

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Population


The world’s population underwent a massive increase during the 20th century. In 1900 it stood at 1.6 billion. By the end of the century, it topped 6 billion. It is estimated...

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Construction


People have constructed buildings from ancient times as homes to provide shelter, monuments or places of worship. Earth, wood and stone have always been used as building materials...

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In 1717, King George of England announced an amnesty that allowed pirates to keep their treasure if they would stop being pirates. read more

The greatest danger in a sea battle came from spilt gunpowder being set alight, which would blow the vessel to pieces. read more

Pirate captains were sometimes voted out by their crews and left ashore for not being aggressive enough—while others were abandoned for being too bloodthirsty. read more

In the 2nd century AD, around 20% of the world's population lived under Roman rule. read more

Greeks believed sneezes could predict the future—sometimes they were a good omen but at other times they were a sign that something terrible was going to happen. read more