Ocean life


Although the oceans make up by far the largest biome on Earth, only about 20% of Earth’s species live in the oceans, of which about 90% are bottom-living, shallow-water species...

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Famous women


Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) was an English champion of women’s rights. She is best known for writing A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, in which she argues for...

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Ancient Middle East


Mesopotamia, the fertile land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Iraq, was one of the first places in the world where people settled down to be farmers: around...

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Ships and boats


In the middle of the twentieth century, steam power began to give way to diesel power. Diesel engines are smaller, cleaner, far more efficient, and need fewer crew to operate them...

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Age of Dinosaurs


The Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, which lasted from 252 to 65.8 million years ago, are together known as the Mesozoic Era, but more commonly called the Age of Dinosaurs...

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Planet Earth


The Earth is a spinning ball of rock and metal. It is one of eight planets that orbit, or circle, our nearest star, the Sun. Its surface is made up of oceans and land masses called...

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Music and dance


Music is the organization of sounds and silences to produce a work that is designed to give pleasure to the listener. Music can be written down in advance or improvised (made up on the...

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Rocks


Rock is the hard material that makes up the Earth’s crust, its hard “shell”. Rock lies beneath all natural soil layers—and everything else: city streets, a...

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Farming


The world relies on farming (also called agriculture) for its food. Farms range in size from large commercial businesses that provide food for sale at home and abroad (cash crops), to...

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Aircraft


All flying machines are types of aircraft. Balloons and airships stay airborne because they are filled with lighter-than-air gas. Aeroplanes (known as airplanes in the US) and...

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British history


The first people to arrive in Britain did so at least 850,000 years ago. At that time, Britain and Ireland were joined together with the continent of Europe (they did not become...

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Oceania


Oceania is the name given to the group of countries located in the South Pacific Ocean. It is made up of Australia—itself an island continent—New Zealand, Papua New Guinea...

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Birds


Birds are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals with four limbs, the front two of which are adapted into wings. They are the only animals that have feathers. Birds have light, hollow bones...

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Oceans


The oceans cover more than 360 million square kilometres (139 million square miles) of the Earth’s surface, approximately 71% of its total area. More than 1350 million cubic...

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Universe


The Universe consists of everything that we know to exist: stars, planets, rocks, people, and so on. It even includes empty space. Nearly all the visible matter in the Universe is...

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Erosion


Over the millions of years of geological time, great mountain ranges have been forced up—then disappeared. Colliding tectonic plates, faulting and other earth movements have...

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Electrical power


Electricity is a type of energy that gives us heat and light and drives machines. To be useful, electricity must be made to flow in a current. In 1831 the British scientist Michael...

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South America


South America reaches from the tropical coast of the Caribbean to the icy Southern Ocean. The world’s longest mountain range, the Andes, stretches down the western side of South...

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Film


In 1895 two French brothers, Louis and Auguste Lumière, showed moving pictures to a paying audience. Their groundbreaking invention, the Cinématographe, could record...

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Europe


Europe and Asia together form one vast land mass called Eurasia. Europe itself lies west of the Ural Mountains, to the north of the Caucasus and on the western bank of the Bosporus...

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Ancient Greece


About 2500 years ago, Greece enjoyed a time of wealth, discovery and invention. It was known as the “Golden Age” of Greece. The country was divided into small states, each...

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Maps


A map is a representation of space that allows us to see the relationship between places, objects or themes. The space shown on a map may be on the Earth’s surface, beneath its...

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Literature


Literature is the art of the written word. Literature has two main forms: fiction (make-believe) and non-fiction (fact). It is written in either prose or poetry. The word literature...

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Pterosaurs


Pterosaurs were flying reptiles. They first took to the air in the Triassic Period, and proceeded to dominate the skies for nearly 100 million years. They had wings formed by flaps of...

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If you counted to a million, and each number took you a second to say, it would take you 11 days. If you counted to a billion in the same way it would take 32 years. read more

Marie Curie’s notebooks still exist, but they have to be kept locked away as they are still dangerously radioactive. read more

While in South America, Darwin was keen to see the rhea, a flightless bird, like an ostrich. After a meal cooked by a local man, he realised he had just eaten one. read more

Hundreds of times fewer electrons flow through lightning than from a typical AA battery. But the total energy carried by the lightning's electrons is millions of times greater. read more

Every year about 9 billion plastic bottles are disposed of. Only about 360 million of them are recycled. read more