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# Latitude and longitude

Lines of latitude are parallel lines circling the Earth in an east-west direction. Lines of longitude run north-south and converge at either pole. Together, latitude and longitude make up a grid, which used to locate places accurately on the Earth's surface. This grid, or network, is known to cartographers as the graticule. To locate points on the Earth's surface even more precisely, degrees latitude and longitude are been divided into minutes (') and seconds ("). There are 60 minutes in each degree, and 60 seconds in each minute. Every point has both a unique latitude coordinate (for example, 51° 47' 20" N) and a unique longitude coordinate (for example, 1° 29' 53" W).

## Latitude

Lines of latitude, running east-west, circle the globe from pole to pole. They are also known as parallels and are an equal distant from each other. Lines of latitude allow a north-south position anywhere on the Earth's surface to be fixed.

The line of latitude that runs around the Earth's middle, exactly halfway between its poles, is called the Equator: it is 0° latitude. It divides the Earth into Northern and Southern hemispheres. Places to the north of the Equator have latitude positions anywhere between 0 and 90°N; places to the south of it have latitude positions anywhere between 0 and 90°S. Each degree of latitude is about 111 kilometres (69 miles) apart.