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Ancient India

Life in the Indus ValleyLife in the Indus ValleyThe Indian civilization is one of the oldest in the world. Farmers had begun to build villages in the valleys of the River Indus and the nearby River Ghaggar-Hakra (in modern-day Pakistan and India) by about 7000 BC. These settlements grew larger and eventually became the centre of a great civilization that flourished from about 3200 BC until about 1700 BC. The greatest cities of that civilization have been named Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa by archaeologists. The inhabitants of these cities constructed great buildings and made beautiful crafts.

Indus valley civilization

A model showing life in an Indus Valley cityA model showing life in an Indus Valley cityA map of the Indus Valley civilizationA map of the Indus Valley civilizationThe two largest cities of the Indus civilization, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, had streets of brick-built houses laid out on a grid system. Their thick walls kept people cool in the heat of summer, while the windows may have had wooden shutters with grilles (barred openings) to let in light and air.

Both cities had their own water supply—wells in the streets where people could get water—and sewage systems (for the disposal of waste), making them the first known cities in the world to do so.  Almost every house had a flush toilet. Dirty water flowed out through pipes into a drain in the street.

From 2600 BC, cities of the Indus Valley featured basic "flush" toilets in nearly every house, connected to common sewer pipes.

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